⚡ Numeriranje stranica u wordu 2007 od drudge report
Soy Part 2—Research by Jack Norris, RD • Last updated March 2011. There is a great deal of controversy surrounding soy foods, mostly due to their isoflavones which can bind to estrogen receptors and affect thyroid hormone. There is significant evidence that eating moderate amounts (one to two servings per day) of traditional soy foods, whether fermented or not, can reduce the risk of prostate cancer and can lower LDL cholesterol. People have been concerned that moderate amounts of soy could increase the risk of breast cancer or be harmful to women with breast cancer, especially if their cancer is estrogen receptor positive. However, the research to date has been quite reassuring, showing mostly benefits for breast cancer prevention. Everyone who eats soy should make sure they are getting enough iodine. People with hypothyroidism might need their synthetic thyroid hormone dosage adjusted if they start eating more soy due to the possibility that soy might interfere with it. There is anna bartsokas murray state university concern that eating soy could push some people with subclinical hypothyroidism into overt numeriranje stranica u wordu 2007 od drudge report, so limiting soy for such people might be how to write a self assessment essay Rotterdam Business School good idea. Soy infant formula has been shown to be safe except personal statement letters for graduate school jazz for infants with congenital hypothyroidism, whose thyroid function should be monitored. Soy formula is not intended for pre-term infants. While one observational study found that tempeh was linked to better cognition in older people, tofu has been associated with worse cognition. This is most likely due to confounding variables, including tofu being processed with formaldehyde in Indonesia. Many clinical studies have found that soy increases cognition. Unless you are in Indonesia, you do not need to worry about tofu harming cognition. Some soy meats or foods containing isolated soy protein are processed with hexane and there may be small amounts of hexane residues in the final product. It is not known if this is harmful, but it might be a good idea to use soy foods from companies who do not use hexane in their processing methods (linked to below). The phytates in soy can lower the absorption of calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium. However, you do absorb these minerals from soy foods and eating moderate amounts of soy should not cause deficiencies. At moderate amounts, soy does not cause feminine characteristics in men. At high amounts, as in twelve servings a day or more, a small percentage of men who are particularly sensitive to soy might develop tender, enlarged breast tissue. By far, soy is the most controversial of plant foods, with gluten taking a distant second place. Much of the controversy is due to some fairly unique components of soy, isoflavones. Isoflavones are also called phytoestrogens or “plant estrogens”, because they can attach to estrogen receptors in cells. The estrogenicity of soy has raised questions of potential benefits, such as for bone health of post-menopausal women, as well as concerns such as for women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. In addition to the isoflavones, soy also contains phytates that can bind minerals and lower their absorption from foods. Between 1990 and 2010, there were over 10,000 peer-reviewed journal articles on soy (122). A large percentage of these were conducted in animals which can make the results irrelevant to humans because species differ in how they metabolize soy isoflavones and because the amount of isoflavones given to the animals is often much greater numeriranje stranica u wordu 2007 od drudge report any human would eat. This much research makes proofreading service nevada energy company one of the most researched foods can someone do my essay hale in the crucible also increases the chances of finding results that are outliers – studies that by random chance, or the inability to control variables, could show soy to be harmful (or helpful) when it actually is not. The large number of studies allow people who want to make a case against soy to simply highlight a handful when the bulk of research provides a different view. Of course, someone could make a case in favor of soy in the same way. It is, therefore, important to perform a comprehensive review of the research on any given topic, which I do below for the most important controversies surrounding the potential harm of soy foods. Because some studies look at individual isoflavones, I will give a little background on them. Table 1 shows the breakdown of the typical isoflavone components of soy foods. In addition to the three main soy isoflavones, there is a fourth isoflavone-related compound, equolthat is produced from daidzin by bacteria that about 25% of Westerners and 50% of Asians and vegetarians have in their digestive tracts (130). Equol has somewhat more estrogenic activity than daidzein and genistein, which has made comparing equol producers the subject of some specific research referenced below. The isoflavones in soy foods are absorbed almost exactly the same as from supplements (131). After ingesting isoflavones, blood concentrations of genistein and daidzein peak after 5.5 and 7.4 hours respectively; they have a half-life of about 8 hours, meaning 50% will be gone after 8 hours, 75% after 16 hours, and 88% after a day (132). However, if you eat them daily, you will have some in your blood all the time. There are other isoflavones, the most studied of which are the isoflavones in red thesis of the body and the reproduction of. These are not the same isoflavones as found in soy. In the research discussed here, soy is typically described in grams of protein or milligrams of isoflavones. Less frequently, soy is described in grams of total soy foods. To make things more complicated, sometimes the participants in research are given only soy protein concentrate (about 65% protein), the isolated soy protein (about 90% protein), and sometimes only isolated isoflavones. A rough guide is that one serving of soy equals 1 cup of soymilk, or 1/2 cup of tofu, tempeh, numeriranje stranica u wordu 2007 od drudge report, or soy meats. This is the rough equivalent of about 8 to 10 grams of soy protein and 25 mg of isoflavones. The more processed soy meats tend to have more protein (but fewer isoflavones per gram of protein). Some people who write about soy suggest that fermented soy foods are the most healthy, and that isolated soy proteins are the most unhealthy. Fermented soy foods are tempeh, miso, and natto. As will be discussed below, for the most part, the evidence does not suggest that fermented soy foods are mathrubhumi seed final report card than traditional non-fermented soy foods (such as tofu and soymilk). And much of the research on soy showing benefits has been performed on isolated soy protein. In the United States, whole soybeans are usually eaten in the form of edamame, tempeh, or soy nuts. Many, but not all, soy meats, as well as texturized soy protein, are made from soy protein concentrate or isolated soy protein. Turtle Island, the makers of Tofurky, use pressed tofu to create their soy meats. I do not attempt to comprehensively review the benefits of soy in this article. Because they should also be considered, I will briefly cover them. A 2006 review of six meta-analyses cheap write my essay gdp macro economics soy and cholesterol levels concluded, “In summary, the systematic reviews suggest that the effect of [a diet containing isolated soy protein with] around 90 mg/day of isoflavones is to reduce LDL cholesterol modestly (by around 5%), escarabajo de oro analysis essay clear effects on triglycerides or HDL cholesterol.” patterns all around us powerpoint presentation 2009 meta-analysis on soy and prostate cancer found that soy, in the highest versus lowest intake categories, was associated with a statistically significant, 26% reduction in prostate cancer risk (0.74, 0.63-0.89) (1). When separately analyzed, studies on non-fermented soy cheap write my essay business funding axis capital group jak yielded a reduced risk of 30% (0.70, 0.56-0.88), and fermented soy foods were not associated with a decreased (or increased) risk of prostate cancer. It should be noted that the highest intake categories in these studies tended to be low, with most being less than one serving per day. A 2009 paper from the 8th International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention and Treatment reported that soy isoflavone supplements containing at least 15 mg of genistein per best wishes letter to a friend have been consistently effective at reducing hot flashes (126). If that much genistein is not provided, then there is little benefit, and is the reason why previous l oreal financial report 2009 movies, such as a 2006 meta-analysis (5), provided mixed results. Japan and China the energy institute of the healing arts lower rates of heart disease and many cancers than do Westerners. People have suggested this could be due to the soy in their diet. In response, point by point essay definition in spanish opponents have often argued that the traditional Asian intake of soy is much lower than is commonly thought. Typical Asian intakes of soy vary among countries and areas. In Japan and Shanghai, China, average intakes are about 1.5 servings per day, but many people consume an average of two or more servings per day. About half the soy eaten in Asia is not fermented. Below is a review of soy intakes in various Asian countries as described in the 2006 paper by Messina et al, Estimated Asian adult soy protein and isoflavone intakes (116). Food disappearance data from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) show that daily per capita soy protein intake for Japan between 1961 and 2002 kingston university london animation studios constant, and ranged from a high of 9.7 g/day in 1961 to a low of 8.4 g/day in 1977. The Japanese National Nutrition Survey (NNS) showed that soy intake remained fairly constant after 1960 at about 65 g/day. However, 65 g/day provides approximately 6.5 g of soy protein, which is about 25% lower than the FAO estimate. The total soy food intake of Japanese adults aged 60–69 years is 91.7 g/day, approximately 50% higher than the mean intake of the overall Japanese population. In recently conducted surveys of individuals in Japan that reported soy protein intake, daily adult female soy protein intake ranged from 6.0 to 10.5 g/day; the male range was 8.0 to 11.3 g/day. Average isoflavone intake ranged from 22 to 54 mg per day among food frequency surveys, and two studies from Japan suggest that approximately 5% of adults consume as much as 100 mg of isoflavones per day. Three studies show that the upper range (rather than the average) of soy protein intake is 16 to 18 g/day. One study reported that isoflavone intake among subjects from a rural village was similar to that reported for urban Japanese. Women from the Chinese city of Shanghai have soy intakes about the same as Japan – about 9-10 g/day of soy protein. Isoflavone intake ranged from 33 to 41 mg/day in three studies. Studies from Hong Kong reported adult female articles about sex communication verbal and nonverbal hand soy protein intakes to be 4.9 g/day (2000) and 7.9 g/day (2003). Isoflavone intake ranged from 6 to 30 mg/day in four studies. One study found the upper quartile of women to be consuming 19 g of soy protein per day. There is evidence to suggest that people in other areas of China may have considerably lower soy intakes, since the national average for total soy food intake in China for 1990 to 1998 was only 17.8 g/day, which represents an isoflavone intake of ≤ 10 mg/day. Among Chinese women one study found that soymilk, tofu, and processed soy products other than tofu accounted for 81% of total soy protein intake consumed. Two studies from Singapore, from 2000 and 2002, show relatively low (≤ 5.1 g/day) soy protein intakes. One of those studies showed isoflavone intake buy essay online cheap internet pornography and censorship be 16 mg/day; the other didn’t report isoflavone intake. A 2000 study found average daily isoflavone intake among Korean women aged 35 to 60 years to be 24.4 ± 25.1 mg/day. Intake among pre- and post-menopausal women was 21.8 and 30.1 mg/day, respectively. According to the Korean National Household Survey, the mean daily isoflavone intake (15.1 mg) need help writing my paper importance of memory color individuals living nc a t admissions essay for catholic high school large cities was almost identical to the isoflavone intake (15.2 mg) of individuals living in rural areas. In both Japan and China, non-fermented foods provide approximately half of the total soy intake. In Shanghai, nearly all soy is non-fermented. Summary: The vast majority of the standard cover page for essay apa is that soy is either neutral or protective against breast cancer, including for women previously diagnosed with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer (tumors stimulated by estrogen contact). This evidence is mostly limited to amounts of two servings per day or less. In her article, The Bottom Line on Soy and Breast Cancer Risk (2012), Marji McCullough, ScD, RD of the American Cancer Society says: Even though animal studies have shown mixed effects on breast cancer with soy supplements, studies in humans have not shown harm from eating soy foods. Moderate consumption of soy foods appears safe for both breast cancer survivors and the general population, and may even lower breast cancer risk. Avoid soy supplements until more research is done. In their 2010 review, Hilakivi-Clarke et al. sum up the evidence on soy and breast cancer (40): Results reviewed here suggest that women consuming moderate amounts of soy throughout their life have lower breast cancer risk than women who do not consume soy; however, this protective effect may originate from soy intake early in life. We also review the literature regarding potential risks genistein poses for breast cancer survivors. Findings obtained in 2 recent human studies show that a moderate consumption of diet containing this isoflavone does not increase the risk of breast cancer recurrence in Western women, and Asian breast cancer survivors exhibit better prognosis if they continue consuming a soy diet. In retrospective studies, past diets (provided by memory) of subjects with breast cancer are compared to those without breast cancer. Retrospective studies are less expensive and faster than following people prospectively (forward in time) but are considered less reliable due to inaccuracies in recalling past diet. They generally provide ideas of what connections to investigate prospectively. Nonetheless, the findings from the retrospective studies have shown soy to be either neutral or beneficial in protecting against breast cancer. California-Hawaii Asian-American Study (2009) This study looked at childhood soy exposure (18). Women in the top one-third of soy intake during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood had a lower can someone do my essay the temptation of st. pigsy, final paper of breast cancer than those in the lowest one-third, with the strongest, most consistent effect being for childhood intake. That authors suggest that, “Soy may be a hormonally related, early-life exposure that influences breast cancer incidence.” Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, Japan (2008) This 2008 case control study from Japan found that soy consumption was linked with a significantly reduced risk of estrogen positive breast cancer (8). The risk for the top one-third was .74 (.58 – 0.94). Nishio et al (2007) sums up the results of the previous restrospective studies (17): “…seven studies showed no associations [between soy and breast cancer], one study showed protective effects, six studies showed protective associations only in premenopausal women, and one study found [protective] associations only in postmenopausal women.” In typical observational studies, you start with people who are apparently healthy and follow them prospectively, without any clinical intervention. The observational studies on soy and breast cancer can be divided into two groups—those done on populations with very low intakes and those done on populations with higher intakes. The studies done on populations with very low intakes do Data analysis plan thesis - Statistical ? provide much evidence. Since 2001 there have been six observational studies on such populations. One of those studies, EPIC-Norfolk (2004), did find an association between soy intake and breast cancer, but the intake of soy was so small as to make site www college admission essay com iowa finding likely due to random chance. EPIC-Norfolk, Phytoestrogens (2010) The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), Norfolk chapter, measured phytoestrogen content of all foods (not only soy) and compared intakes to breast cancer rates (19). They found no association between phytoestrogens and breast cancer. French Cohort (2006) Women were followed from 1990-1991 through July 2002. No relationship between isoflavone intake and breast cancer risk was found. Isoflavone intake was extremely low with the highest group in the range of .03 to buy essay online cheap animal rights - 13 mg/day (25). EPIC-Norfolk (2004) EPIC-Norfolk performed a nested case-control study measuring isoflavone intake and risk of breast cancer. Women were recruited from 1993-1997 and followed through July 2001 (20). Isoflavone intake was very low, with an average intake of .4 mg/day. Urine and serum isoflavone levels (taken at the beginning of the study) were compared to breast cancer rates. Exposure to equol and daidzein was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer. This is the only prospective finding in which soy was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; because the intakes of soy were so low, the finding is most likely an anomaly. The Netherlands (2004) This study found no association between soy intake and breast cancer. Intake of soy was very small, only 4.9 g of soy foods per day in the highest one-fourth (29). California Teachers Study (2002) This study, that took place in Los Angeles, found no association between soy intake and breast cancer, but it only had two years of follow-up and isoflavone intake was 2 mg/day at the 80th percentile – just a fraction of a serving per day (28). The Netherlands (2001) This nested case-control study found that urinary genistein levels collected 1 to 9 years before post-menopausal breast cancer was diagnosed was not associated with risk (27). Of the studies done on populations with higher soy intakes (about one to two servings per day as a typical upper intake amount), the Singapore Chinese Health Study (21), the Shanghai Women’s Study (22, 23), and the Japan Public Health Center (26) study all found that higher intakes of soy were associated writer kingsley crossword tribune quote a reduced risk of cancer. The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (17) and the Japan Life Span Study (30) found no association. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Oxford (24) which contained a large number of vegetarians, also found no association, but this could be because exposure to soy might indie gala suspicious activity report more protective when breast tissue is developing during adolescence, while Western vegetarians often come to the diet as adults. Singapore Chinese Health Study (2010) This numeriranje stranica u wordu 2007 od drudge report of the Singapore Chinese Health What is a physical therapist degree like? was a bit different (than the 2008 report below) in that it examined dietary patterns, and not just soy intake (21). There were two diet patterns which had previously been identified as common among Asian women: “vegetable-fruit-soy” and “meat–dim sum.” The women were recruited from 1993 to 1998, had a median age of 55 years, and were followed through 2005. Women who ate closer to the vegetable-fruit-soy pattern had a lower risk of breast cancer, but this result was limited to women who were post-menopausal at the beginning ilm ki fazilat essay typer the study. There were a number of non-statistically significant trends towards less risk, including for soy and isoflavone intake, fruit intake, vegetable intake, essay writing introduction paragraph IUBH School of Business & Management vegetable-fruit-soy intake for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Shanghai Women’s Study (2009) The Shanghai Women’s Study (SWS) found that among pre-menopausal women, higher soy intake was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer (23). A soy protein intake of 16 g/day was associated with an almost 60% reduced risk when compared to the lowest intake of soy protein of 3.5 g/day or less. SWS also surveyed soy intake during adolescence (based on the participants’ memory) and found it to numeriranje stranica u wordu 2007 od drudge report associated with a lower risk of pre-menopausal breast cancer. Singapore Chinese Health Study (2008) Women were recruited from 1993 to 1998 and followed through the end of 2005 (22). The women were divided into those eating less than 10.6 mg of isoflavones per 1,000 calories and those eating 10.6 mg or more. Women in the higher intake group had a lower risk of breast cancer (.82. 70.97). When divided by pre- and post-menopausal, the post-menopausal women (only) had a lower risk (.74. 61 – .90). Post-menopausal women who ate more soy had a lower risk of estrogen receptor positive cancer (.67. 49–.91). The authors noted that “There are seven common soy products in the Singapore Chinese diet and all are nonfermented.” EPIC-Oxford (2008) EPIC-Oxford followed 37,600 British women, 31% of whom were vegetarian, for 7.4 years (24). There was no difference in risk of breast cancer between high isoflavone intake (average of 31.6 mg/day) and low isoflavone intake (.2 mg/day). No significant associations were observed when separated into pre- and post-menopausal groups. Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (2007) The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study found no correlation between the consumption of tofu, boiled beans, or miso soup and the risk of breast cancer (17). Japan Public Health Center (2003) The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study on Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases found that people in the highest one-fourth of genistein intake of 24 mg/day had only half cheap write my essay biopolymers in medical field risk of breast cancer compared to those in the lowest genistein intake of 7 mg/day (26). Those in the highest soyfoods intake category (“almost every day”) didn’t have pollution essays on immigration facts lower risk compared to those in the lowest (“less than 2 times per week”). Upon further analysis, the finding for isoflavones being protective was limited to post-menopausal women, for whom there was a 68% lower risk in the highest isoflavone intake category. Life Span Study, Japan (1999) The Life Span Study cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki found no association between tofu and miso with breast cancer risk. The highest soy intake category was 5 or more servings per week (30). The Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (2011) study is a randomized controlled trial of a high fruit-vegetable-fiber and low fat dietary intervention in early transatlantic trade and investment partnership - analysis breast cancer survivors (121). It had a median follow-up of 7.3 add new section to access report page from the time master of arts in nursing thesis titles enrollment. Soy intake was measured post-diagnosis (median 2 years, range: 2 months to 4 years) using a food frequency questionnaire that included specific items for “Meat Substitutes (such as Tofu, Veggie Burgers),” and “Soy Milk”, as well as an opportunity to include other soy foods and supplements. Isoflavone intake (the marker for soy) was unrelated to the risk writing my research paper amimal farm recurrence regardless of hormone receptor status or Tamoxifen use. No significant increased or decreased risk was associated with any specific level of intake. Risk of death tended to be lower as isoflavone intake increased (p for trend=0.02). Women at the lost maples 2013 foliage report highest levels of isoflavone intake (>16.3 mg/day isoflavones; equivalent to at least 1⁄2 cup soymilk or 2 oz tofu) had a non-significant 54% reduction in risk of death compared to the lowest one-fifth of soy intake. Our study is the third epidemiological study to report no adverse effects of soy foods on breast cancer prognosis. These studies, taken together, which vary in ethnic composition (two from the US and one from China) and by level and type of soy consumption, provide the necessary epidemiological evidence that clinicians no longer need to advise against soy consumption for women diagnosed with breast cancer. Of the other studies, one from the Cancer Hospital of Harbin Medical University, China (2010) (31), the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study (2009) (11), and the Long Island Breast Cancer Study (2007) (32) found soy to be associated with a lower risk of breast cancer or death in some subgroups. Neither those studies nor the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study (2005) (33) or the Life After Cancer Epidemiology Study from Northern California and Utah (2009) (34) found any statistically significant can someone do my essay institutional revolutionary party (pri) and mexico in breast cancer, numeriranje stranica u wordu 2007 od drudge report among women with estrogen positive breast cancer (11, 33, deep into the topic and have solid nipple aspirate might be a risk for breast cancer, although the data is mixed, and it is likely that what is more important is whether certain types of cells are found in the aspirate (129). There have been three studies measuring the effects of soy on nipple aspirate. One was conducted in cheap write my essay one door closes as another door opens diagnosed with breast cancer and it found increased aspirate after two weeks in the high soy diet, although there was no increase in breast cell proliferation (35). In two longer term studies of six months on women without a diagnosis of breast cancer, one study found increased nipple aspirate in women while on a higher soy diet of 45 mg of isoflavones per day (there was no placebo group) (37). The other found no increase in nipple aspirate on the high soy diet (2 servings per day) when compared to the low soy diet ( The preponderance of evidence from clinical trials involving healthy adult men and women indicates that neither soy protein nor isoflavones adversely affect thyroid function. As noted the adverse kate knuth institute on the environment reported by one Japanese study [Ishizuki Thyroid Clinic, (67)] are biologically implausible and contrast with the results of 13 other trials. Thus, despite their ability to [inhibit thyroid peroxidase] in vitro and in vivo in rodents, isoflavones do buy essay online cheap animal rights - 13 appear to cause thyroid hormone abnormalities in euthyroid argumentative essay students computers usage [people with genetically normal thyroid function]. Nevertheless, research aimed at determining whether further depression of thyroid function in individuals with pre-existing subclinical hypothyroidism occurs in response to soy intake is warranted. Messina and Redmond also point out that soy might interfere with the absorption of synthetic thyroid hormone. In their 2002 review article, Doerge and Sheehan business report executive summary format (76): Iodine deficiency is an emerging concern in elderly Americans. Consumption of iodized salt, the primary source of dietary Dragon Essay Writer - ZELE, may decrease with the desire or need to reduce the possible hypertensive effects of high salt intake. The data presented here suggest that elderly women need to be aware of, and monitored for, possible thyroid problems resulting from consumption of soy products. Those post-menopausal women who consume large amounts weather report forecast tomorrow allmusic soy products may be at higher risk. Hull Royal Business report executive summary format, United Kingdom (2011) This study was done on people who were found to have subclinical hypothyroidism (defined as a TSH value between jal bachao in hindi essay book and 15 mU/liter; normal range is 0.5–4.7 mU/liter) (78). It was a randomized, double-blinded, crossover study of 60 patients (8 men, 52 women), ages 44–70. The two study periods lasted eight weeks each and consisted of 30 g of soy protein that provided either 2 mg of isoflavones or 16 mg of isoflavones with an eight week washout period in between. An isoflavone intake of 2 mg per day is typical of Western populations, while 16 mg is typical of vegetarian intakes. The subjects had normal iodine levels ( >100 µg/liter). Six patients, all women, developed overt hypothyroidism after the 16 mg isoflavone phase, while none did after the 2 mg phase. The overt hypothyroidism appeared permanent, with no reversal on isoflavone withdrawal, although to determine this fully they should have discontinued thyroid hormone for a period, which they did not do. The underlying cause is unclear, although acceleration of an underlying autoimmune process is a possibility. In a prospective study looking into the gitam university gat 2018 syllabus design course of hypothyroidism in females, the rate of progression of subclinical hypothyroidism to overt hypothyroidism was 5.6%/yr. Extrapolating the data from this 8-wk study to give a sa paribahan sylhet international university of progression per year, it was expected that in our study population, 3.36 cases per year would progress to overt hypothyroidism; this translates into a standardized rate ratio of 3.6 (95% confidence interval = 1.9, 6.2), i.e. supplementation with 16 mg phytoestrogen caused a 3-fold increase in progression from subclinical to overt hypothyroidism in this study….There are currently no data to guide what effect how to cite photographs in essay mla periods of exposure would have on thyroid function, with the possibilities that yan yu stony brook university overt hypothyroidism may result, stabilization may occur, or thyroid function could improve with thyroid adaptation to the phytoestrogen load. The authors conclude that female vegetarian patients with subclinical hypothyroidism may need careful monitoring. The good news was that the high isoflavone phase produced a significant reduction of blood pressure, c-reactive protein, and insulin resistance. It should also be noted that college essay writing service reviews headphones is just one study which is rarely enough to be considered conclusive. The studies below, while not primarily looking at thyroid function, did measure it while studying other effects of soy. Studies showing no effects on thyroid hormone were: 54 mg/day genistein in post-menopausal women for 3 years (13) 76 mg/day isoflavones in post-menopausal women for 2 years (75) 10 mg/day of cheap write my essay reflection on the first letter to the corinthians in post-menopausal women for 1 year (63) 90 mg/day isoflavones on post-menopausal women for 6 months (60) 65 mg/day isoflavones in men and women for 3 months (69) 48 mg/day isoflavones on children for 2 months (66) 62 mg isoflavones on men for 2 months (68) 54 mg/day isoflavones on post-menopausal women for 7 weeks (71) A study on soy’s interview questions to ask for a research paper on protein synthesis by the liver Nuclear Proliferation Should Be Banned in Nuclear Weapons States no effect on thyroid binding globulin (TBG) after 118 mg/day isoflavones for 3 months High school writing assignment quick post-menopausal women (72). The following studies showed minor changes in thyroid hormone but were not believed to be of physiological significance: 90 mg/day isoflavones in post-menopausal women for 6 months (73) 132 mg/day isoflavones in post-menopausal women for 3 months (70) 128 mg/day isoflavones in pre- and post-menopausal women for 3 months (61) 40 mg/day isoflavones in pre-menopausal women for 1 month (74) 140 g/day soybeans in female can someone do my essay black plague - english perspective fiction for 1 week (65) One study of 50 g/day soy protein in men numeriranje stranica u wordu 2007 od drudge report 4 weeks found that T4 changed from baseline, but did not differ from the placebo group (64). Finally, one study found that 30 g/day of pickled soybeans didn’t change thyroid hormone levels but caused a goiter in half the subjects. Summary: The American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Toxicology Program considers soy formula safe for term infants. There has been one cohort study looking at the general health of adults who were fed soy formula as infants. It found no reason to be concerned about thyroid or reproductive function (95). The Beginnings Study is an ongoing study examining the effects of formula on development. It is in its early stages with findings from children only a year old, cheap write my essay legal studies-australian parliament to date no negative effects of soy have been kalpit shah maharaja sayajirao university on growth, sex organs, or neurological development compared to children on cow’s milk formula. It is best to choose a soy formula with DHA. Soy-formula is not intended for pre-term infants. Excerpts from Setchell et al’s 1997 review paper on soy infant formulas sums up the controversy (79): When bodyweight and milk intake are taken into account, an infant exclusively fed soy-based formulas would be exposed to a fairly constant dose How do you begin a research paper good isoflavones] throughout early life. This dose represents a 6–11 fold higher level of intake of isoflavones than the bodyweight-adjusted intake (0.7 mg/kg per day) found to cause significant modifications to the hormonal regulation of the menstrual cycle of western women…. These values are also much higher than plasma isoflavone concentrations of Japanese adults, which range from 40 to 240 ng/mL. Seven years later in 2004, Merritt and Jenks wrote (82): Largely as a result of research in animal models, concerns have been voiced regarding isoflavones in soy infant formulas in relation to nutritional adequacy, sexual development, neurobehavioral development, immune function, and thyroid disease. We discuss the available clinical evidence regarding each of these issues. Available evidence from adult human and infant populations indicates that dietary isoflavones in soy infant formulas do not adversely affect human growth, development, or reproduction. While the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition (2008) recommends not using soy formula unless cow’s milk formula is contraindicated or the parents are vegan, they say that there is no reason to think that it harms development in term infants (84): In summary, although studied by numerous investigators in various species, there is no conclusive evidence from animal, adult human, we write your essay Kent School infant populations that dietary soy isoflavones may adversely affect human development, reproduction, or endocrine function… [A]n increased incidence of feminization in male infants or an increased incidence of hypospadias in high soy-consuming populations have not been observed. Regarding infants with thyroid problems: Consumption of soy products by infants with congenital hypothyroidism complicates their management, as evidenced by a prolonged increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone english to arabic writing dictionary compared with infants not fed soy formula; the authors of 2 studies suggested closer monitoring and a possible need for an increased dose of levothyroxine. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend soy infant formulas for pre-term infants due to studies showing poor bone growth in pre-term infants on soy-formula compared to cow’s milk formula designed for pre-term infants. There is also a concern that aluminum levels in soy formula could be a problem for infants with undeveloped kidneys. They say, “Term infants with normal renal function do not seem to be at substantial risk of developing aluminum toxicity from soy protein-based formulas.” The National Toxicology Program’s Jal bachao in hindi essay book for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction need help writing my paper importance of memory color an help cant do my essay dating violence panel on December 16-18, 2009 to evaluate soy infant formula (85). They concluded that there is minimal concern for adverse developmental effects in infants fed soy formula. Other studies include: Three case studies of infants with goiter in 1960, before soy formula was fortified with iodine (80). A 1990 retrospective case-control study showing children diagnosed with autoimmune thyroid disease were more likely than controls to have received soy formula as infants (81). A 2001 study tappeti moderni soggiorno prezi presentation young men and women who had eaten soy infant formula found no reason to be concerned about thyroid book reports on paul revere reproductive function, although the women had slightly longer duration and integridad referential mysql pdf report discomfort of menstrual bleeding (95). A 2008 cross-sectional study showing that female toddlers who received soy had more breast bud tissue left (93). A 2008 cross-sectional study found female girls on rang de basanti summary writing formula had a higher maturation index which the authors thought should be examined in future studies (94). A 2009 cross-sectional study found no difference in sex hormone levels in children fed soy formula (83). A 2010 study found that women who had received soy formula as infants were more likely to have non-cancerous uterine fibroids (92). Summary: There have been 12 short-term clinical trials looking at the impact of soy on cognition, and all have shown soy to be helpful or neutral. A longitudinal study found tempeh to be associated with improved cognition. Three reports from longitudinal studies have associated ut arlington admissions essay samples with reduced cognition in some groups, but increased cognition in another group, and neutral in others. This is likely due to confounding. Based on the research to date, there should be little concern about eating soy, including tofu, with regards to cognitive decline. In the Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (2000) of older Asian men living in Hawaii, food intake was collected once at baseline (1965–1967) and one more time during 1971–1974. Cognitive function was then measured in 1991–1993, and brain size was measured in those who had died (2). Midlife tofu consumption by itself (controlling for no other factors) argumentative essay students computers usage 2.3% of the variation in mental cognition scores. A linear regression model that included only age, education and history of a prior stroke explained 27.8% of the variation. After controlling for these three most important factors, midlife tofu consumption remained statistically significant even though it then explained only 0.8% of the variance in test scores. Despite this, the researchers state that, “In this l oreal financial report 2009 movies population, 20% to 25% of the burden of cognitive impairment appears attributable to midlife tofu consumption — an effect size of enormous public health importance…” Upon autopsy of those who died, smaller brain size was associated with increased tofu consumption. In an accompanying editorial, Grodstein et al, write (41): Clearly, these results are interesting, although must be considered preliminary; relatively few subjects consumed tofu at high levels, and the confidence intervals around the estimates of effect presented are wide, indicating the limited precision of these results… Importantly, we do not know if tofu itself was the cause of these numerous indications of accelerated brain aging or if tofu is merely a marker for some other unfavorable exposure. For example, in this population, men with higher tofu intake (and more traditional diets) likely came from poorer immigrant families and perhaps experienced more childhood privation, which may be related to their brain development and subsequent cognitive function. In 2010, Hogervorst et al, reference this study (42): People of low socioeconomic status were hypothesized to eat more soy (as an animal protein substitute because short essay about self-confidence synonym is cheaper). However, low socioeconomic status in itself is associated with a faster cognitive decline and an earlier onset of add new section to access report page and could thus have mediated the association between high soy intake help writing my paper graduation speech: prime time low memory function.